by Millard Burr, Ph.D.
December 1998

This report was written by Millard Burr, a retired U.S. government official and a consultant to the U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR). It is based on his experience as director of logistics operations for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in Sudan from January 1989 to March 1990, and subsequent investigations. [...]

Five years ago, the U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR) published a groundbreaking study by Millard Burr reviewing the death toll in Sudan's long civil war. That study, entitled A Working Document: Quantifying Genocide in the Southern Sudan 1983-1993, estimated that 1.3 million people had died in southern Sudan due to war and war-related causes. [...]

This new report is an effort to update and expand that first study. [It] expands the scope of research to include the Nuba Mountain area of central Sudan, for which virtually no information existed at the time of the first study. [...]

[...] In this new Working Document II, published nearly five years after the first, and which includes specific data on the Nuba Mountains, research suggests that no fewer than 600,000 people have lost their lives since 1993. Thus, more than 1.9 million southern Sudanese and Nuba Mountains peoples have perished since the inception of the cataclysmic civil war that began in 1983.

From 1983 to the present, the civil war has juxtaposed a succession of Khartoum governments dominated by riverine Arabs against a rebel force dominated by ethnic Nilotes and African tribes from southern Sudan and South Kordofan. For more than 15 years, warfare, drought, famine, and attendant diseases-all accompanied by government indifference to human suffering-have caused widespread death and destruction. [...]

Unlike the period 1983-1993, during which foreigners and the media were able to observe a series of catastrophic events that caused the death of tens of thousands, in recent years, the Khartoum government has impeded the collection of field data. It has been relatively successful in sealing off much of Sudan from the prying eyes of journalists, aid agencies, and social scientists. Thus, the single most important cataclysmic event of recent date-the Nuba Mountains massacre-has transpired outside the field of vision of observers.

II. OVERVIEW OF 1994-1998
[...]Since the June 30, 1989 revolution, the Sudan civil war has been characterized by an incremental ferocity that has left untouched practically no one, and certainly no district, found in southern Sudan. Moreover, the government response to SPLA alliances with the ethnic Nuba of southern Kordofan, and the Beja and other ethnicities of the Red Sea region, has led the Khartoum government to carry out policies that spread death and destruction into northern Sudan itself. While military casualties can be numbered in the tens of thousands, civilian losses during the Sudan's second civil war (1983-1998) now approach two million persons.

The first USCR working document barely covered the conflict in the Nuba Mountain region. Since 1993, a number of eyewitness reports have underscored that the Khartoum government military activity and social policy directed against the Nuba peoples of South Kordofan have been nothing short of genocidal. Thus, this document reflects an attempt to obtain as much information as possible on the effect of government activity in the Nuba Mountain region since the June 30, 1989 revolutionaries took power in Khartoum.

Eventually, this working document should include a study of the Beja and their allies in eastern Sudan and the Fur and Messalit of western Sudan. Like the Nuba, the Arab-dominated Khartoum government has applied a political and economic straightjacket, and authorized military attacks, on these "untrustworthy" ethnic minorities found on the Sudan's periphery.

A. War Related Deaths of Southern Sudanese May 1983-May 1993
- 1983-85 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990-91 1992-93
Upper Nile >20,000 x10,000 >10,000 x100,000 >10,000 >25,000 x100,000
Bahr al-Ghazal >50,000 >20,000 >50,000 >100,000 >10,000 >50,000 x10,000
Equatoria >10,000 >5,000 >5,000 >25,000 x1,000 x5,000 x5,000
Kordofan i/d i/d >10,000 >50,000 >10,000 i/d x10,000
Darfur i/d i/d x10,000 x10,000 x1,000 i/d x1,000
Ethiopia i/d i/d x10,000 x10,000 x1,000 i/d i/d
Khartoum i/d i/d x100 x1,000 x100 x1,000 i/d
Subtotal >100,000 >50,000 >150,000 >500,000 >75,000 >125,000 >300,000

Note on tables: This table and others in the text employ the following symbols: > = Greater than [...]; i/d = insufficient data. [...] Through this and other tables, the author has consistently employed conservative estimates of the number of deaths. The regional and yearly subtotals take into account these conservative estimates, and represent what the author believes to be the minimum number of deaths within each region or each year.

(J.M. Burr, September 1993).13

B. War Related Deaths of Southern Sudanese 1994 - 1998

- 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 TOTAL
A. Bombing the Civilian Population: - - - - - x10,000
B. Nuba Genocide: - - - - - x100,000
C. Equatoria: x10,000 >10,000 > 5,000 >20,000 x10,000 >100,000
D. Upper Nile: >30,000 >10,000 >10,000 > 5,000 x10,000 >100,000
E. Bahr al-Ghazal: >35,000 >25,000 >20,000 >25,000 x50,000 >200,000


TOTAL 1994-1998: >600,000
TOTAL 1983-1993: >1,300,000
GRAND TOTAL 1983-1998: >1,900,000*

* Because the outcome of the 1998 famine is still difficult to predict, and as more data on the Nuba genocide become available, it seems certain that war-related deaths for the period 1983-1998 will exceed two million Sudanese.


A. Bombing the Civilian Population

Estimated Deaths: Direct: x1,000 Indirect: x10,000
[...] Villages allied with the SPLA or located in the path of government attacks became special targets; conventional bombs were dropped, as were rockets, vicious cluster bombs, and even anti-personnel land mines, whose deadliness survived well after the bombing event itself.(1) [...]

The author's search for bombing data found that from 1994-1998, nearly 100 towns and villages in southern Sudan and the Nuba Mountains were bombed by Sudan Air Force planes. Though hardly exhaustive, a search by month uncovered nearly 300 different air strikes. [...]

The widespread use of aircraft to attack civilian targets indicated that Khartoum had declared war not just on John Garang and his SPLA, but on its own people. It seemed the NSRCC was ready to commit any war crime in order to crush the southern rebellion. [...]

A-1. Bombings: NSRCC Initiates Air Attacks
The Khartoum government began to bomb civilian locations only months after taking power on June 30, 1989. The Sudan government used the Air Force in a campaign of indiscriminate aerial attacks on civilian populations in the Nuba Mountains and in Blue Nile province. [...]

Air attacks increased literally within minutes of the unsuccessful conclusion in December 1989 of the Nairobi peace talks chaired by former United States President Jimmy Carter. [...] Invariably, the Antonov bombers operated at heights beyond the range of ground-to-air missiles that the military was convinced the SPLA had in abundance. The air raids had little or no military significance other than to terrorize the helpless civilian population. [...]

A-2. Bombings: Air Force Expands Attacks
Through the first six months of 1990, air attacks were generally ineffective. Still, the NSRCC received substantial international criticism for bombing civilian populations. [Any] pretense that the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF or Sudan army) sought to differentiate between southern Sudanese civilians and the SPLA was abandoned once the NSRCC rejected in June 1990 a peace plan surfaced by the U.S. State Department. Literally within hours of that event, two government planes bombed Torit, a district town used by SPLA leader John Garang as his headquarters, killing 20 civilians, and most in a crowded marketplace. [...] Meanwhile, the Sudan army was re-armed, receiving MiG-23s from Libya and other aircraft from Iraq and China.(4)

The sporadic bombing that continued through early 1991 increased exponentially after the Ethiopian government of Mengistu Haile Miriam began its collapse. [...]

A-3. Bombings: International Protests
Through 1992, the Sudan army increased its air attacks and thus generated thousands of internally displaced people. [...] In certain cases, it appeared that villages where international (invariably Western) aid agencies worked were a specific target, as were their schools, clinics, and hospitals. [...] The government used helicopter gunship to attack villages, and there were reports that diabolical cluster bombs were being dropped on civilian targets.(11)

Even the normally circumspect UN-OLS information officer condemned the NSRCC for its relentless and indiscriminate policy of bombing civilian population centers with "old Soviet-made cargo planes flying at 12,000 feet or higher over rebel-held areas," that dropped "500-pound bombs out of the back cargo hatch."(12)

In early 1993, the re-armed Sudan army was everywhere on the attack in the South. [...] From Juba southward, SPLA towns and villages were bombed. In August 1993, the Sudan army initiated the protracted bombing of civilian population centers in western Equatoria. [...] Despite numerous international appeals to halt the indiscriminate bombing, the Khartoum government denied it had ordered such air attacks. [...]

In a November 1993 response to the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly, the Khartoum government complained bitterly that an interim report submitted by Special Rapporteur Gaspar Biro was factually incorrect. Specifically, Biro had written

"Many reports have been received concerning indiscriminate and deliberate aerial bombardments by government forces on civilian targets, e.g. camps for displaced persons."

The government of Sudan responded:

"Deliberate, yes, but they are not indiscriminate. The aerial bombardments took place, but against military targets where heavy weaponry is used by the rebels against the civilian population."

It then added:

"For the record, we would like to state that there are no displaced camps in the SPLA-controlled areas. All displaced camps are situated in the northern part of the Sudan [sic] for those fleeing the combat zones."

In June 1994, 23 celebrated Sudanese-representatives of opposition political, social and religious organizations [...] condemned "the NIF Regime" for "committing the most flagrant violations of human rights in the history of Sudan." Of particular concern was "the indiscriminate bombing of civilian targets in southern Sudan and the Nuba Mountains, including refugee camps," which had resulted in the "uprooting of populations" and the "mass exodus of hundreds of thousands."(21)

And still the bombings continued. A horrible attack on Yambio in November 1995 left numerous dead and wounded [...] A few months later, a report submitted to the UN Commission on Human Rights noted 37 incidents of aerial bombing "in areas inhabited by civilian populations."(23)

By 1996, it was evident that the Sudan Air Force was dropping "cluster bombs" on villages in the SPLA-controlled areas. The cluster bombs sprayed delayed-action bomblets and anti-personnel minelets in and around villages. They killed and maimed humans and severely aggravated civilian suffering long after the raid itself. They also destroyed cattle and halted cultivation.

A-4. Bombings: Conclusion Regarding Bombings
From 1994 through 1998, the Sudan Air Force carried out thousands of air attacks on southern Sudan and the Nuba Mountains. In Bahr al-Ghazal, bombing campaigns provided cover for Army forces, Arab militias (Murahileen), PDF, and southern rebels who had joined with Khartoum to destroy the ethnic Dinka..19 In Equatoria, air attacks often combined with artillery bombardments caused the depopulation of hundreds of villages. The internally displaced people were hounded as they fled the fighting and were bombed as they sought safety in Uganda and Kenya. Despite the presence of United Nations/Operation Lifeline Sudan and INGO operations, government planes even targeted displaced persons camps. In a cruel attack meant to destroy their spirit, in 1997, the Sudan Air Force bombed refugees and the displaced as they returned home from displaced camps in the Sudan-Kenya and Sudan-Uganda borderlands. Despite cease-fires and talk of peace, the bombing campaigns would continue. In late 1998, as the SPLA threatened to attack Torit, an "extensive" bombing campaign was carried out in eastern Equatoria. Some sixteen civilian targets were hit in late August and early September.(27) And as the rebels moved closer to Juba, there were reports of indiscriminate bombing in that region.


* = Bombed more than once [...]

Nuba Mountains
Balol 04/92. Buram villages 02/97. Debri 02/97. Heiban villages 02/97. Jebel Tulishi 04/92. Namang mountains, 09/95. Moro Hills villages 06*/95. Regife villages 06*, 07*/95. Tabanya 12/94. Turoji, 12/94. Ungurban villages 02*/97.

A-5. Footnotes to Section IV, Part A, "Bombing the Civilian Population"
(1) For pictures of cluster bombs dropped on Chukudum in July 1996, note: "Khartoum Escalates Its War Against Civilians in Southern Sudan," Christian Solidarity International, Nairobi, July 10, 1996.
(4) "The Junta Shows Its True Face," The Middle East, March 1990.
(11) "Statement by U.S. Rep. Frank R. Wolf, Congressional Delegation to the Horn of Africa, February 5 - February 12, 1993," U.S. House of Representatives, Select Committee on Hunger, Washington D.C., February 18, 1993. See also the Congressional Record, Washington D.C., February 16, 1993.
(12) "War-Torn Southern Sudan Called 'Another Somalia'," The Washington Post, February 12, 1993.
(21) "Human Rights in Sudan: Past, Present & Future," Christian Solidarity International, Bonn, Germany, June 28, 1994.
(23) Gaspar Biro, "Situation of Human Rights in Sudan," UN Commission on Human Rights, E/CN.4/1996/62, February 20, 1996.
(27) "Sudan Rebels Target Garrison," Reuters, Nairobi, September 30, 1998.


B. The Nuba Genocide

Estimated Deaths: x100,000 (multiples of 100,000)
The Nuba Mountain region of South Kordofan comprises 30,000 square miles, or an area slightly larger than the Netherlands and Belgium combined. The region, which is shaped in the form of an irregular pentagon with its short side to the northwest and long side to the south, is home to 52 different ethnic groups. Prior to the onset of a military campaign initiated by the Khartoum government in 1990, the Nuba congregated in 50 to 60 villages of 5,000-10,000 people. A few were towns, per se, but most were actually linear settlements where people lived in round huts (tude) spread over a long distance. Despite the fact that some villages (payam) are overwhelmingly Islamic or Christian, and some communities practice traditional religions, the Nuba have a long tradition of religious tolerance. There is still found a shared cultural affinity based on geographical proximity and similar "conditions of life." A multiplicity of languages and dialects have been clustered into ten distinct linguistic groups, each sharing a generally distinct geographic region.(1) Traditionally, communications were maintained by officials who often walked days or even weeks to reach their destination. TABLE: LANGUAGES IN NUBA

Language Classification Kordofan Location Geographic Descriptors
1. Kadugli-Korongo Center-South Kadugli, Keiga, Miri, Kacha, Tulishi, and Korongo Hills
2. Daju West and Southwest Lagowa town; Shatt Hills Southwest south and southwest of Kadugli.
3. Talodi-Mesakin Southern Talodi; Lumum; Mesakin Hills.
4. Lafofa Southern Eliri Range.
5. Koalib-Moro Center-East Kauda; south from Delami; west of Heiban, Moro and Lumun Hills.
6. Tegali-Tagoi Northeast Tegali Range from Kadaka through Rashad to Turum and west to the Tagoi Range.
7. Nyimang Northwest Nyimang Hills west of Dilling; Mandal Hills north of Nyimang.
8. Temein Northwest Temein Hills south of Nyimang.
9. Katla-Tima Northwest Katla and Julud Hills; Tima Hill.
10. Hill Nuban Northwest From Dair through Kaduru; Dilling; the Ghulfan Ranges; Wali to hills in W. Kordofan.

The Nuba tribes inhabited the Sudan long before the arrival of Arab tribes. However, centuries of attacks by their Arab neighbors forced the various Nuba peoples to find sanctuary in what are now called the Nuba Mountains. Until very recently, the region was isolated and certainly far removed economically from the Sudanese heartland. Prior to the Sudan's independence, a colonial governor of Kordofan reported in 1931 that the Nyimang and Koalib were the only authentic Nuba because they were not Arabized nor "Arab-dominated".(2) Ironically, following the creation of the Republic of Sudan, the Nuba - whether Arabized or unacculturated - were marginalized by a succession of Arab-dominated governments in Khartoum.

It was not until the 1970s that the region was understood to have "great economic potential." A mechanized farming system was introduced in the rain-fed agricultural region east of Kadugli, the capital of South Kordofan, and there began the slow encroachment on Nuba land. Simultaneously, to the west of Kadugli, the Arab cattle nomads (baggara) who had long coveted the Nuba pasturelands began their own encroachment. The result was to draw the various Nuba tribes into a loose political alliance that has strengthened over time.

B-1. Nuba: Population Data
In the 1955-56 census, the first and undoubtedly the most detailed demographic study undertaken in the Republic of Sudan, some 575,000 Nuba-comprising slightly more than 60 percent of the population of South Kordofan-were enumerated.

In the third census of Sudan, taken in 1983, the population of South Kordofan totalled 1.287 million people; two-thirds of that total (850,000) were classified as "rural settled," and of that total, the vast majority were Nuba. Nearly one-quarter of South Kordofan's population (320,000) was "rural nomadic," comprised almost exclusively of Baggara tribes.(3) Undoubtedly, the largest congregation of Nuba were found in Kadugli District, where 330,000 people were enumerated.(4)

Given an estimated annual population growth rate of 2.8 percent, by 1989 there were probably close to a million Nuba in South Kordofan. However, no one could say for sure because the 1983 census was in many cases a hit-and-miss affair, especially in the Nuba Mountains.(5) An expert who has written numerous articles and books on the Nuba Mountains estimated that in 1989, there were some 1.3 million Nuba located in South Kordofan. (6) The figure may have been generous, but given the lack of data it is impossible to dispute. Certainly, claims by ethnic Nuba that the tribes comprise about 2 million people seems unjustifiably high.(7)

B-2. Nuba: Military Activity
During the period 1983-1988, the Nuba generally sought to refrain from choosing sides in a civil war that pitted the North against the South. Nevertheless, given government neglect, militia raiding, and the myriad and not so subtle forms of racism to which they were subjected, by 1989 many Nuba were allied with the SPLA, and some had even joined its military. The Nuba themselves trace their distrust to 1985, when they felt the government instituted policies to marginalize or eliminate educated Nuba leadership from participation in the Sudanese polity. By January 1989, the SPLA New Cush Brigade, comprising Nuba rebels and led by former schoolteacher Yusif Kuwa Mekki, made its appearance in the Nuba Mountains.


Saburi, Um Dulu - The first major massacre is reported at Suburi village, located just east of Kadugli. Nearly 100 are killed. It is followed by government attacks on Moro Nuba at Um Dulu village near Acheron, and at Lupa in the Moro Hills.

1- 4/1989:

Angolo, Tira Lumun - The SPLA presence leads to a government attack on Angolo villages (Kadugli-Karongo Nuba) in the Miri Hills. Other attacks were initiated in the eastern Jebels on Koalib-Moro villages in the Lumun hills east of the Moro Range.

B-3. Nuba: NSRCC Goes On Attack
Shortly, after seizing power on June 30, 1989, the military junta announced a unilateral cease-fire in southern Sudan. The rebel SPLA, which had previously accepted a UN-sponsored cease-fire in support of OLS, refused to participate. The SPLA had just won a series of victories that swept the government from all but a few major garrison towns in southern Sudan. While the government cease-fire did not specifically include the Nuba Mountains, ground warfare was reduced even though the Sudan government had been under strong attack by Nuba leader and SPLA Commander Yusif Kuwa. Skirmishing continued and involved small units until September 1989, when Nuba villagers arriving in Kadugli reported that for the first time the Sudan government forces were supported by armed helicopters that fired at anything that moved.

The tenuous peace in the Nuba Mountains ended for good in October 1989, after SPLA and Sudan armed forces collided in Blue Nile region near the Ethiopia-Sudan frontier. Literally within hours, a Sudan armed forces column went on the attack in the Nuba Mountains. The SPLA-Sudan army battle was truly engaged, and the NSRCC began to pursue with great vigor a military conclusion to the civil war. From 1989 through 1991 alone, "scores of villages were burned and thousands of villagers killed in joint army and militia assaults" in the Nuba Mountains.(8) The Sudan army purged Nuba officers and noncommissioned officers, and.29 thousands of educated Nuba were arrested (200 in Kadugli). Hundreds of Nuba leaders simply "disappeared."

To eliminate the SPLA presence in the Nuba Mountains, the Sudan army initiated a series of penetrations designed to destroy villages and force occupants to flee. In 1990 alone, scores of villages were torched and thousands were killed in government "scorched earth" raids carried out by soldiers quartered at the Kadugli and Talodi garrisons. While the attacks were military in nature, the underlying rationale seemed economic in nature: as Nuba abandoned their land, it was claimed by government satraps who sought to introduce large-scale mechanized agriculture. In the east and north, the Sudan government forces supported locally organized Peoples Defense Forces (PDF), Missiriya Arab militias (Murahileen) and, eventually, the Khartoum government's own Mujahideen (Holy Warriors).

By 1991, the government had blocked nearly all trade in and out of the Nuba Mountains, and when the Sudan army and its support elements attacked villages, the indigenous economy was targeted and Nuba shops and markets were destroyed. Food stores were carried off or destroyed. Such attacks on cultivators, and the destruction of crop stores and crops in the field, would eventually cause thousands of Nuba to flee the lowlands for the hills. The result would be widespread famine. The Sudan government's slash and burn campaign led many Nuba to join the SPLA. In turn, the government arrested more Nuba leaders. Hundreds were jailed in El Obeid and were never heard of again.

In 1991, a widespread drought and regional insecurity caused thousands of famine stricken families to move to displaced camps that had been formed around government-controlled towns.


Dar, Tabidi, Bilenya, Daloka - Hundreds of villages are leveled and untold numbers killed.


Kadugli, Rashad, Dilling, Al-Foula - Nearly 150,000 are displaced by Sudan army attacks. Kadugli reports 115,000 displaced from rural Kadugli, Rashad counts 32,000 from eastern rural areas, Dilling reports 40,000 from rural Habilla, Salara and northern Kadugli, and 2,500 arrive at Al-Foula from the Lagowa and Keilak regions.(9)


Kaldada - Village burned, 60 killed.


Daju villages - Numerous attacks near Lagowa and Nimr Shago. Kayo and Balol villages destroyed. Jabal Tabak, north of Lagowa, is attacked late in the year.


Kuchama, Otoro - Due east of Kadugli, Sudan government attacks displace tens of thousands of Koalib-Moro villagers.


Tira - South of Heiban the Murahileen burn nearly a dozen Koalib-Moro villages in the Tira al-Akhdar. Hundreds are killed, many flee to Dulu and Buram. The 1990 harvest is burned, and farmers will be unable to cultivate in 1991.


Shawaya - Villages attacked by Army units and Murahileen militia west of Heiban. Many were killed: "The militia were in the business of capturing people; the army just killed them."(10)


Saburi - A Loya village just east of Kadugli reports 250 killed and all houses burned in a Murahileen attack.(11)


Wali - Scores of Hill Nuban villages destroyed during the 1991-92 campaign.


Lagowa - The Nuba Mountains are "sealed off" by the Sudan military. As hundreds of Nuba are detained in Lagowa or El Obeid it is observed that "the Genocide was to be perpetrated in silence."(12)


Lubi - The Sudan government forces quartered at Abu Jibeha attack many villages to the southwest. Widespread damage is reported.


Miri Hills - The largest concentration of government forces ever reported for a single attack. SPLA positions in the western Jabals and Miri Hills located west and southwest of Kadugli are hit. Scores of villages are leveled and many deaths are reported.


Nyima (Nyimang) Hills - Many villages are burned west of Dilling.

B-4. Nuba: Jihad Begins
In January 1992, South Kordofan governor, Lt. General al-Hussein, formally declared a Holy War (Jihad) in the Nuba Mountains.(13) By approving of or acquiescing in wholesale murder, abduction, rape, family separation, forced religious conversion, and the forced relocation of tens of thousands of Nuba in so-called "peace villages," the Khartoum government sought to extirpate the Nuba peoples themselves. There followed more attacks on villages, and a policy of military conquest was attended by a "policy of famine." By approving the slaughter of villagers, and by initiating policies that would lead ineluctably to the deracination and acculturation of the Nuba peoples, the NIF government is committed to cultural genocide.

In June 1992, the U.S. Embassy in Khartoum reported that Governor al-Hussein had "announced plans to relocate some 25,000 displaced from the Nuba Mountains" to the "three provinces in Northern Kordofan": the result would be the "detribalization and scattering of the Nuba people"; the relocations themselves were "construed as no less than an overt military strategy to depopulate the Nuba Mountains."(14) Despite the protests of INGOs and Western embassies, 17,000 Nubans were removed from well-run camps for internally displaced persons at Kadugli and dumped on unsuspecting city commissioners in En Nahud, Bara, and El Obeid. None of them "either requested or wanted the relocated displaced." And of the homeless and "traumatized" who had been taken from Kadugli, the "majority [were] sick and malnourished."(15) The embassy reported "fear among the donors that the relocated displaced would be forced into indentured labor on agricultural schemes or in households." In all North Kordofan relocation sites, where no INGOs were allowed to operate, there were 43 deaths reported in Um Ruwaba and 44 in En Nahud in the first month after the arrival of the Nuba displaced.

Given the Sudan army bombing and strafing campaigns and the numerous reports of human rights violations, including the purposeful attacks on civilian populations, the U.S. Congress enacted in October 1992 its Resolution 140, "Relating to the humanitarian relief and human rights situation in Sudan": The Resolution ordered the American representative to the UN Commission on Human Rights to support the appointment of a special rapporteur to investigate conditions in Sudan. The Commission on Human Rights responded by naming Gaspar Biro to the post of Special Rapporteur on Sudan.


Wali, Tima, Katla, Jalud, Nyima - Simultaneous attacks on villages west of Dilling. Many are killed, thousands are displaced.


Ningele - Many Moro people were burned to death in their church or killed as they sought to flee a militia attack.


Faus - Reports of 25 "extrajudicial executions" in villages south of Dilling.(16)


Tullishi - The Jihad campaign is opened north of Lagowa; Government forces (Sudan army, PDF, Murahileen, Mujahideen) totalling some 50,000 actives attack SPLA positions around Jebel Tullishi. Army uses helicopter.32 gunships, MiG23, and Antonov bombers. Many civilians are killed and thousands of displaced generated. Village wells are poisoned. The force is withdrawn in May, just before the onset of the rainy season. Later reports indicate 1,842 recorded deaths by starvation.(17)


Tira - Reports of widespread starvation south of Heiban. It is certain that the fatalities-most of whom were children-can be numbered in the tens of thousands."(18)


Maryam, Tima Hills - The region south of Dilling is pillaged by Misseriya Murahileen; "not a single village escaped."(19) "Hundreds" of dead are reported in Kuwe village alone. Consequently, there is practically no farming in 1992.


Jebel Abu Januq - Village north of Lagowa is given 72 hours to evacuate before it is destroyed.


Kadugli - When efforts to take the OLS program to rural Nuba villages are rejected by Khartoum, "40,000 civilians descended on Kadugli alone in the space of five days."(20)


Jebel Tabak - Forty civilians reportedly "extrajudicially executed" in the region north of Lagowa.


Delami - West of Rashad, numerous deaths are reported among Koalib people; some 10,000 Nuba were forced to relocate.


Tima - Murahileen attack numerous villages in the northwest Jebels south of Dilling; nearly 300 dead at Karakadi.


Faus - Scores killed in the northwest sector at Nyima Hill villages. At least 11 killed at Faus.


Kadugli - 100-300 displaced arrive daily. Child malnutrition rates were "in the range of 59.5 percent." Official estimates indicated that 80,000 civilians "fleeing atrocities and famine" had already arrived at Kadugli and Dilling. Most were totally destitute women, children and the elderly. At Kadugli, "more than 180 deaths" were reported in the first three weeks of June despite the intervention of numerous INGOs.(21)


Korongo Hills - A small force from Kadugli garrison attacks villages in the Korongo Hills southwest of Kadugli.


Ghulfan Range - Perhaps the most complete destruction in the 1991-92 campaign occurred in Hill Nuba villages in the northwest and the north-central sector, where it was reported "all the villages were destroyed."(22)


Various - During a visit, U.N. Ambassador Jan Eliasson is told of massacres by Sudan forces and PDF in "Lagori, Lagowa, Kamada, Tulushi, Kadugli town, and many more." Helicopter gunships and artillery used at Lagowa, Kamada, and Tulshi. A dozen large villages around Dilling were devastated.(23)


Various - 31 killed near Abri and Dellami. Koalib tribes (predominantly Catholic) are targeted. South of Dilling, 22 killed at Tulushi village. Near Lagowa, 20 killed at Ladi and Riwabba villages. "Many civilians" were killed during an army attack on Sadah, near Dilling; the village church, school, and mosque were burned. Near Tubira 100 killed; homes were set afire and people shot as they fled. (24)


Jebel Heiban - Reports circulate of a December massacre, "where hundreds, perhaps thousands, of villagers were killed and dumped in mass graves." Another report speaks of 13 mass graves in which "there were about 20,000 villagers, men, women and children killed."(25) Amnesty International receives unconfirmed reports of "several hundred civilians" killed in the Kualit area near Heiban.(26)


Kuarten - Villagers report to Christian missionaries that attackers "killed so many people we ran away."

B-5. Nuba: "Peace Villages" Forced Resettlement
Following the creation of a South Kordofan Peace and Resettlement Administration in April 1991, the government undertook a plan to use "peace villages" in which internally displaced people could be congregated. By February 1992, the government had created 22 peace villages to house 70,000 returnees, and the government discussed openly the resettlement of 500,000 Nuba internally displaced people. The first to be concentrated were an estimated 50,000 internally displaced people who had congregated at Kadugli, Dilling, Talodi, and Lagowa following a series of Sudan government offensives carried-out in early 1992. Incredibly, tens of thousands were moved from the Nuba Hills, and "between June and August at least 30,000 Nuba" were trucked to peace villages in Northern Kordofan."(27) Hundreds of unaccompanied Nuba children were shipped to Sheikan, a camp located near El Obeid, the capital of North Kordofan province.

In North Kordofan, the camps at Um Ruwaba, En Nahud, Sheikan, Sidra and Hamrat al-Shaykh began as little more than death traps. In July, as many as 15 people a day perished at the concentration camp at Um Ruwaba. USAID-Sudan reported many deaths and terribly high malnutrition rates in children under five.(28) Other camps that soon housed more than 30,000 displaced were created in the Nuba Mountains at Angarko near Dilling, Rashad, and at six camps surrounding Kadugli. The SPLA reported that in late 1993 the government had taken children from parents and "ten thousand were sent to Libya from Sheikan concentration camp."(29) The report was denied by the governments of Sudan and Libya.

The numbers of Nuba displaced people would increased substantially in the following months, as a man-made famine lasted through 1993 and affected all Nuba Mountain peoples. As more and more peace villages were occupied, reports reached Khartoum and the outside world that the encampments really served as prisons where the displaced were kept "against their will."(30) Because government health and food provisions were minimal, thousands would die in and be buried near the camps. Within a year, the government claimed it had created 91 peace villages comprising some 170,000 people. In general, the able-bodied were used as labor in the towns and in the fields. In many cases, children were separated from mothers, and whether families approved or not, children were educated in Islamic schools.

The relocation of tens of thousands of Nuba and the attendant human rights violations led the U.N. Undersecretary General for Humanitarian Affairs to address the issue in September.34 1992. From that date, the Nuba issue was internationalized, but the Khartoum government would not accede to the request of Gaspar Biro (the UN rapporteur) to undertake a personal on-site investigation of conditions in the Nuba Mountains. In May 1993, the first film reportage on the Nuba Mountains appeared in the West. In the United Kingdom, a television program helped verify reports that "between late 1991 and 1993" the Nuba Mountains had suffered "the most severe famine in Sudan."(31) The drought had an indescribable effect on Nuba society, as the usual coping mechanisms employed to outlast a drought and preclude famine had been destroyed by the military. The region is everywhere in flux.


Heiban - Sudan government forces attack leads to charges of a major massacre, with reports as high as 6,000 civilians killed. Charges could not authenticated, but it is known that many deaths occur as a result of artillery barrages fired on villages in the Otoro and Tira el Akhdar region. Also, hundreds of villagers were abducted and never seen again.


Kawalib - Region north of Heiban is attacked by Sudan forces from Dilling. Some deaths are reported.


Karkari al-Beira - Village located 30 miles east of Kadugli is attacked by PDF and Murahileen in late 1992 and early 1993. "Scores of people were killed and 400 homes and the church were destroyed."(32)


Lake Abyad, Turoji - Sudan government attacks from Muglad garrison in region south of Buram where "tens of thousands of famine refugees" had congregated.(33) A "major massacre," considered the largest single atrocity to date, follows. Some 1,900 were either killed or died of hunger and thirst while trying to escape.


Tima - Northwest region again attacked by Sudan government forces. Koya, Balol, Maryam and Koya villages were burned. Scattered deaths.


Shatt Tibeldi - Shatt villages south of Kadugli are attacked by Sudan government forces; villages near Shatt Damam are destroyed.


Southern Nuba Mountains - At a meeting of a relief agency, UN participants and Nuba held at Pariang District, Upper Nile, a Nuba spokesman reported that "50,000 people were displaced and starving." They added that the Nuba had "no medicines of any kind," and much of the population was "without clothes."(34) Nuba leaders declared that in the region "above 16,000 people died of hunger and thirst since 1989." It was asserted that the government policy of "ethnic cleansing [was] geared towards replacing the Nuba people with the Arab tribes of Kordofan."(35)


Om Dorein - Government captures town west southwest of Kadugli, some killed and 5,000 flee to surrounding hills and are soon noted in desperate condition.


Buram - After Buram is surrendered to the Sudan government forces by a turncoat SPLA commander, the surrounding villages are attacked and scores are killed.


General - Given a scorched earth policy, there was practically no 1993 harvest in the Nuba Mountains region.

B-6. Nuba: "Combing Operations"
Beginning in 1994, government forces attempted few major assaults on targets in the Nuba Mountains. Instead, the tactic of low-intensity warfare, or tamshit ("combing"), was employed, and the military would make it as difficult as possible for villagers to remain in the region.

Small units attacked defenseless villages after it was learned the SPLA was not in the vicinity. The attacks began with the onset of the dry season, and their object was to steal what one could, destroy the harvest, and torch homes. Attackers killed those who ran, while abductions of women and children were an integral part of the operation itself. Lack of food, shelter, and incipient starvation would lead Nuba to migrate to the larger towns where the government could force the displaced into Peace Villages and impose its control. Instead of major operations causing the deaths of thousands, there were a myriad of small incidents in hundreds of villages where a score of Nuba were killed here, and one or two there. The results were just as deadly, and thousands were killed outright. On occasion, operations were supported by helicopter gunships, MiG jets, and Antonov bombers.

Beginning in October 1991, the NSRCC denied Western INGO access to the Nuba Mountains. Despite an OLS-government of Sudan agreement reached on September 15, 1992, which affirmed the "critical importance of access to all people in need of humanitarian assistance where ever they may be," the Nuba Mountains prohibition was not lifted until June 1994 when the government allowed the Save the Children Fund-United States to institute humanitarian assistance programs among the displaced at Dilling and Rashad.(36) Access to Kadugli was not allowed, however, until late 1996 when SCF/United States extended its activity to 16 Peace Villages located in and around Kadugli where "needs were great." The Khartoum government remained adamant, however, that no Western INGO operating under the OLS umbrella could conduct relief activities "in 'rebel-controlled' areas of the Nuba Hills."(37)


Tira Limon, Seraf Jamous, Oya - Luman Hills east of Kadugli are pounded by artillery and villages occupied, looted and destroyed.


Nafia, Jebel Ashum, Heiban - Numerous attacks. 228 killed at Jebel Ashum, 113 at Heiban. Mass killings and rapes are reported in the Shatt region and at Bangili and Tagoma, east of Dilling.(38)


Buram - Continuous attacks on villages between Buram and Lake Abyad.


Kalkada - Villages located near Mendi and on the southern edge of the Tira El Akhdar Hills south of Heiban are shelled and occupied. Many are killed, scores are abducted.(39)


Seraf Jamous, Arda - Numerous attacks and scores are killed.


Kernalu - Assassinations squads working out of Heiban emerge in the Heiban region. Village leaders and wealthy herders are targeted.


Kauda - Dry season attacks on Tira (Koalib-Moro) villagers living north of Delami. Kauda Valley is occupied in the center-east; settlements are leveled and scores are killed.


Kalkada - More than 200 "abducted" in the Tira El Akhdar Hills. In village after village, there are reports of deaths and terrified villagers escape to higher elevations.


Tima Hills - Attacks in October, January, March, and April south of Dilling leave more than 60 dead as the Sudan government forces occupy Tima town.


Tira el Akhdar Hills - Um Durdu and other villages are attacked causing numerous casualties.


Otoro Hills - In November, Otoro settlements at Tira al Akhdar are "combed"; a few are killed, 75 abducted. In January more than ten killed. Attacks on scattered villages continue in February. Widespread famine in the region forces 7,000 displaced to move into Peace Camps at Mendi, Abu Jibeha, Kalogi, and Heiban.


Buram - Government forces employ a "scorched earth" policy, destroying villages south of Buram and to the west of the Mesakin and Korongo Angolo Hills.

B-7. Nuba: UN Commission on Human Rights Protests
In 1995, famine conditions existed in most parts of the Nuba Mountains, while human rights organizations were convinced that "hundreds of thousands" had died in massacres occurring in the Nuba Mountains.(40) In March 1995, a cease-fire was arranged in south Sudan so that the guinea worm epidemic could be attacked. In the Nuba Mountains, where health conditions were execrable and a kala-azar epidemic continued unchecked in the southernmost region, no health campaign was initiated.(41) While the Nuba Relief, Rehabilitation and Development Society argued the health conditions problem "in the Mountains is severe,"(42) the government stepped up its "combing" operations in the Nuba Mountains. There would be no let-up with regard to attacks on Nuba leadership, and assassination squads that received their orders from the government officials at Heiban were very active, targeting teachers and "justices of the peace" who operated in SPLA- controlled areas.(43)

Gaspar Biro, the UN rapporteur on human rights conditions in the Sudan, reported that a series of inhumane acts had been sponsored by the Khartoum government in the Nuba Mountains. He noted the relocation of thousands of Nuba, including the irrational movement of thousands to ghastly camps located outside Port Sudan in the Red Sea region where they were left to rot. In his report issued in February 1996, Biro noted: "In the Nuba Mountains, a large number of civilians, including women and children, Muslims, and Christians alike, have been killed in [aerial] attacks or summarily executed."(44) He noted in particular a June 1995 air.37 attack on Regifi and judged that the government tactic was designed to force villagers to flee and thus depopulate the region.


Angolo - Seventeen civilians were killed and 35 injured in a government attack that destroys Angolo itself. Crops are destroyed, food supplies are stolen, and all cattle- considered by many Nuba to be nearly as important as life itself-are taken from one of the richest regions of the Nuba Mountains.


Tullishi, Kauda, Nyima - Numerous government attacks.


Lupi, Karakaya, Gardud el Hameid - Various artillery and ground attacks displace thousands. 300 houses are burned in Karakaya and "many people died." Some 70 are abducted in villages where 250 had already been abducted in the Lake Abyad region.


Toror - Village is attacked, some deaths result, and nearly 300 are abducted.


Abri, Dere, Bario, Tanfoli - A large military force attacks south of Dellami town killing "all unarmed civilians who crossed the army's path."(45)


Dellami, Tuberi - Numerous attacks are reported with numerous killings and abductions.


South Sudan - Although a cease-fire comes into effect in March 1995 in southern Sudan, the government continues its relentless attacks on Nuba villages.


Angolo - Reports of burning and looting of scores of villages by a Nuba PDF battalion commanded by the Sudan military. PDF are paid a bounty for women and children captured. All able bodied males are killed.


Kauda Valley - Army operations force thousands to flee to the Otoro Hills. Many abductions reported.


Kawalib (Koalib) Hills - Abri and other villages found south of Dallami are attacked. More than 500 are abducted, and "about 70 were killed."(46)


Kuchama - Village attacked by SAF from Heiban. "Many were slaughted."(46)


Korongo Hills - The Korongo settlements southwest of Kadugli and in the vicinity of Korongo Abdallah are attacked. For the first time it is noted that the government deploys anti-personnel mines in the Nuba Hills.


Lira - Scores are "abducted" in villages northwest of Heiban.


Seraf Jamous, Arda - Artillery and small unit attacks on settlements are reported.


Moro Hills, Otoro Hills - Nearly 100 homes are destroyed in Dabker and many are killed in "combing" operations in the Moro Hills, and in the Otoro Hills located west of Kauda on the Haiban-Talodi road. Tura village is leveled.


Fariang - Turncoat SPLA commander surrenders Fariang district. The Sudan government follows with a campaign to level Nuba villages located to the north.


Regife - Bombings leave at least six dead and 13 injured.(47) The UN reports that bombing attacks on this densely populated area was "indicating an intent" to force civilians to flee the region.(48)


Ormache - Twenty-one killed and 104 abducted in this Heiban county village.(49)


Dingir - The Mendi garrison located south of Tira el Akhdar, and "notorious for violations perpetrated against civilians," occupies villages and abducts many Nuba.

B-8. Nuba: Trying to Survive
In October 1995, a Nuba journal published in Great Britain reported: "Everywhere we turn in the Nuba Mountains, the Sudan government is destroying villages, committing atrocities, and building 'peace villages' that contain imprisoned civilians."(50) In December 1995, International Christian Concern published unsubstantiated reports that the Sudan Air Force had dropped napalm on three sites in the Nuba Mountains causing the killing and wounding of thousands. True or not, by 1996 there were only an estimated 250,000-300,000 Nuba left in SPLA-administered regions. Only seven Christian pastors were still active in the region, and the indigenous Muslim ulema were everywhere under attack.

Still, following the success of SPLA attacks in Equatoria, and the growing presence of NDA forces in Blue Nile, the feeling was that the outgunned SPLA would soon be re-armed. In 1997, outsiders who visited the region learned that of "eight massive military columns" that had just penetrated the SPLA region, six were repulsed. The two that got through, however, "devastated many villages, burning crops, vandalizing churches, destroying villages, looting livestock and murdering many villagers."(51)


Toror, Kauda - Battalion-sized attacks destroy Toror and Kauda villages in the Tira el Akhdar.


Toror, Berera - Reports of deaths and the razing of churches.


Debi, Eri - Attacks by Sudan govement forces; Debi, an Otoro village, was occupied and surrounding villages were burned.


Tiberi - Villages victimized by random artillery attacks.


Kodi, Kumriti - Scores of villages attacked in Heiban County. Kodi and Kumriti are attacked three times.


Kerker - Catholic Church sources report that an Antonov drops cluster bombs on a populated area.


Debri (Debi) - A major battleground in the Otoro Hills results in the displacement of thousands.


Adudu - Village destroyed and atrocities reported.(52)


Debri, Hieban, Ungurban, Buram - During unauthorized visit, eyewitnesses observe bomb damage, interview Nuba, and barely escape MI-4(Hind) helicopter attack. It is estimated that attacks have created 15,000 displaced in Heiban, 25,000 in Ugurban as a result of a "scorched earth" campaign, and 12,000 in villages near Buram.(53)


Jebel Abyad, Nakar Hills - Villages located in an area about 90 miles south of Dilling in eastern Nuba Mountains are attacked and occupied. Reports of many deaths.

B-9. Nuba: The Final Solution?
In 1997, the UN's World Food Program began the distribution of food aid to so-called "peace villages" in Kadugli Province. By then it was obvious to observers that rape was an integral aspect of the government plan for the Nuba. Thousands of abducted women were raped while being transported from Nuba settlements to peace villages. Careful investigators would note: "Every woman interviewed...who has been taken to a peace camp has been raped or threatened with rape."(54)

Economically, it seemed the Khartoum government had achieved one of its major goals when the SPLA was forced to retreat from a large region south of Dilling. Shortly thereafter, one million acres of prime sorghum and sesame cultivation claimed by Koalib Nuba and east of the Kawalib range would be given over to Sudanese Arabs.

In August, Christian Solidarity International appeared before the UN Commission on Human Rights in Geneva and accused "the Sudan regime of condoning the abduction and enslavement of people from religious and ethnic minorities." Nevertheless, despite international criticism there was no let-up in government attacks on the Nuba people. Politically, it seemed that a "final solution" for the Nuba was decided upon in December 1997, when the government named the sinister Minister of Interior, Bakri Hassan Salih, to take charge of Transitional Council of Southern Kordofan. As President Bashir explained it, the government was about to initiate a campaign of "peace by force" in the Nuba Mountains.(55)

By mid-1998, the government objectives in the Nuba Mountains had nearly been accomplished. The government had created 72 Peace Villages with an estimated population of some 172,000 people, 60 percent of whom were called "war affected Nubans." Nonetheless, the SPLA endured.

In a 1997 OLS assessment, 41 Peace Villages and 106,000 people were found "most vulnerable" because crop production had "barely reached" subsistence levels; a food deficit approaching 40 percent was estimated for the period May to August 1998.(56) In May, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan urged Sudan government approval of air flights to the Nuba Mountains in order to "deliver food to the 20,000 people that local aid workers say are at risk of starvation."(57) The appeal worked, and the UN "warmly welcomed" the Sudan government announcement that "it would, for the first time, grant access to rebel-held areas [south and northeast, west of Talodi Province and south of Dilling] of the Nuba Mountains," where "several thousands of people in rebel-held areas" had been displaced and were "facing severe food shortages."(58) The SPLA admitted that "tens of thousands of their people are at risk from famine and disease," but it wanted "nothing to do with foreign aid if it is controlled by the government."(59) It would only accept food aid flown in from Lokichoggio. However, the UN soon reported that the assessment would be postponed until June 1998.(60)

INGOs delivered 13,000 pounds of sorghum to an airstrip near SPLA Commander Yousif Kuwa Makki's headquarters-enough to feed about 500 people for a month.(61) It was very little, but it was a start. Unfortunately, the honeymoon did not last long. In July 1998, Khartoum media reported that fighting had resumed, while 50,000 people had arrived in Kadugli after fleeing internecine warfare in Al-Wihda state involving Nuer militias of Riak Machar and Paulino Matep.


Kadugli - A government fact-finding mission to Al-Wihda state indicates "vast damage inflicted on government installations and development projects. Many deaths result from clashes between the South Sudan United Movement/Army (SSUM/A), led by Paulino Matep, and the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF) of Riak Machar. Tens of thousands "of Al-Wihda" people flee the region for the relative safety of "the Nuba Mountains and west Kordofan."(62)


Ajroun - Clashes between SPLA and government forces near the "Ajroun Mountains," the "headquarters of SPLA forces of Yousuf Kuwah," create thousands of displaced. The government confirms the actual and expected arrival of 60,000 displaced at Kadugli and "appealed to national nongovernmental organisations to provide humanitarian assistance."(63)


General - Recent government attacks had "displaced some 25,000 from the valleys." Despite government announcements, an assessment team was denied permission to carry out a survey. One report had it: "The result of a 10-year blockade" in the Nuba Mountains "has been the reversion to a virtual Stone Age existence."(64)


General - The government response has been "to refuse permission to the UN to deliver food." Withholding food is thus used as deliberate policy to depopulate the land..., [and] the price of imposing such a policy is death for thousands.(65)

B-10. Nuba: Conclusion
Taking either the population estimate of 1.3 million Nuba people in 1988 (estimated by de Waal of African Rights), or the estimate usually used (1.0 million), it can be said for certain that the Nuba have suffered enormously in the 1990s. Assuming:

  1. There are 250,000 Nubans located under SPLA administration (although the figure could be somewhat less)..41
  2. The Khartoum government achieved its February 1992 goal of resettling 500,000 Nuba displaced people (although in mid-1998 the government counted only 72 Peace Villages with an estimated population of some 172,000 people, 60 percent of whom were called "war affected Nubans").
  3. There are 100,000 Nubans who have moved from the Nuba Mountains region, including those found in displaced persons camps from Khartoum through North Kordofan.
  4. That 50,000 Nubans have joined the PDF or the military, or are active in urban centers and exist outside of the Peace Camps milieu created for Nubas in South Kordofan.

If one assumes a population of one million Nuba in 1983, and even discounting a natural annual population growth estimated at 3 percent, at a minimum, more than 100,000 Nubans have disappeared. Given an estimated population growth of 3.0 percent per annum, the Nuba population loss likely has exceeded 200,000 persons since the NSRCC came to power on June 30, 1989.

The Nuba who have been lost through acculturation, deracination, and the results of "ethnic cleansing" can only be guessed.

B-11. Footnotes to Section IV, Part B, "The Nuba Genocide"
(1) R. C. Stevenson, The Nuba People of Kordofan Province, University of Khartoum Press, 1984.
(2) Living on the Margin: The Struggle of Women and Minorities for Human Rights in Sudan, The Fund For Peace, New York, NY, July 1995, page 38.
(3) Extrapolated from Robin Mills, "The Population of Sudan: A Note on the Current Situation, Trends and Their Implications," University of Gezira, Sudan, February 1986.
(4) "Population of the Sudan and Its Regions, Project Documentation No. 1, 1983 Census," Population Studies Centre, University of Gezira, Sudan, May 1984.
(5) R. C. Stevenson, op cit; a recent effort published in 1995 by the World Evangelization Research Center was able to enumerate 270,000 Nuba in 12 ethnic groupings.
(6) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, African Rights, London, July 1995.
(7) Recently, the figure was used by Stephen Buckley and Karl Vick, "Nuba Caught Up in Sudan's Civil War," Washington Post/International-Guardian Weekly, United Kingdom, June 16, 1998.
(8) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, op cit, page 7.
(9) Living on the Margin: The Struggle of Women and Minorities for Human Rights in Sudan, The Fund For Peace, New York, NY, July 1995, pages 20-21
(10) John Prendergast and Nancy Hopkins, "'For Four Years I Have No Rest': Greed and Holy War in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan," Center of Concern, Washington, D.C., October 1994.
(11) Ibid., page 31.
(12) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, op cit, page 113.
(13) On its components, note Food and Power in Sudan: A Critique of Humanitarianism, African Rights, London, May 1997, page 191.
(14) U.S. Embassy Cable 4657, Khartoum, June 18, 1992.
(15) U.S. Embassy Cable 5650, Khartoum, July 26, 1992.
(16) "Sudan: Patterns of Repression," Amnesty International, Report AI AFR 54/06/93, February 1993.
(17) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, op cit, page 132.
(18) Ibid., pages 112-116.
(19) Ibid., page 116.
(20) Living on the Margin: The Struggle of Women and Minorities for Human Rights in Sudan, The Fund For Peace, New York, NY, July 1995, page 27.
(21) U.S. Embassy Cable 5650, Khartoum, July 26, 1992; Living on the Margin: The Struggle of Women and Minorities for Human Rights in Sudan, The Fund For Peace, New York, NY, July 1995, page 28.
(22) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, op cit, page 120.
(23) John Prendergast and Nancy Hopkins, op cit.
(24) Ibid.
(25) Ibid., page 33.
(26) "Sudan: Patterns of Repression," op cit, page 7.
(27) Ibid., page 6.
(28) "Sudan: Drought/Civil Strife, Sitrep No. 55," United States Agency for International Development-Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, Washington D.C., October 7, 1992.
(29) "SPLM/SPLA Conference on Humanitarian Assistance to the New Sudan," Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Association, Chukudum, Sudan, September 21-23, 1995, page 23.
(30) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, op cit, page 244.
(31) Food and Power in Sudan: A Critique of Humanitarianism, African Rights, London, May 1997, page 177; the film was provided by Hugo D'Aybaury of Jubilee Campaign, Guildford, Surrey, U.K.
(32) John Prendergast and Nancy Hopkins, op cit.
(33) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, op cit, pages 134-35; "The Nuba - A Nation at Risk," Frontline Fellowship, Newlands, South Africa, Edition 3, 1996.
(34) Friends in the West. FAX to Megan Hill, US Agency for International Development, August 23, 1993.
(35) Acuil Malith Banggol, "Plight of the Innocent and Abandoned Nuba and Panaru (Dinka) People of Nuba Mountains and Parieng Areas," SRRA-SPLA Agriculture Chief Coordinator, August 21, 1993.
(36) See UN General Assembly Resolution 48/187, 1992.
(37) U.S. Department of State, Cable 220661, Washington D.C., October 23, 1996.
(38) John Prendergast and Nancy Hopkins, op cit, pages 33-34.
(39) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, op cit, page 178.
(40) See the report and map of Kees Hulsman, Trouw, The Netherlands, February 17, 1995.
(41) Claudio Ragaini, "Missione Sudan," Famiglia Cristiana, No. 42, October 25, 1995.
(42) "Guinea Worm in the Nuba Mountains but No Ceasefire," The Horn of Africa Bulletin, March 1995, page 26.
(43) Justice in the Nuba Mountains of Sudan: Challenges and Prospects, African Rights, London, August 1997, page 5.
(44) On Biro's reporting, see United Nations Commission on Human Rights, E/CN.4/1996/62, Geneva, February 20, 1996, and E/CN.4/1995/58, Geneva, January 30, 1995.
(45) "Killings and Abductions Continue," Nafir, Vol. 1, Issue 3, Middlesex, U.K., October 1995, page 2.
(46) Renato Kizito Sesana, "wrestlers for God," Africanews, Koinonia Media Center, Nairobi, 1996.
(46) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, op cit, page 181.
(47) "Spirits Are High In The Nuba Mountains In Spite of Severe Hardship," Sudan Democratic Gazette, London, September 1995, page 5.
(48) United Nations Commission on Human Rights, E/CN.4/1996/62, Geneva, February 20, 1996.
(49) "Killings and Abductions Continue," Nafir, Vol. 1, Issue 3, Middlesex, U.K., October 1995, page 2.
(50) United Nations Commission on Human Rights, E/CN.4/1996/62, Geneva, February 20, 1996.
(51) "War Intensifies in the Nuba Mountains," Frontline Fellowship, Newlands, South Africa, Edition 3, 1997, page 5.
(52) Frontline Fellowship News, Newlands, South Africa, Edition 2, 1998, page 4.
(53) Ibid. (54) Facing Genocide: The Nuba of Sudan, op cit, page 221.
(55) Arabic News, electronic news daily edition,, December 4, 1997.
(56) "Press Release: United Nations Assessment Mission to Nuba Mountains," UN/DHA, New York, May 13, 1998.
(57) Corinne Dufka, "AFR: Isolated Nuba Caught in Sudan's Complex War," All-Africa Press Service, May 26, 1998.
(58) "Press Release: United Nations Assessment Mission to Nuba Mountains," op cit.
(59) Corinne Dufka, op cit.
(60) "Sudan Army Advance Threatens Aid Efforts," Reuters, Nairobi, May 19, 1998.
(61) Stephen Buckley and Karl Vick, "Nuba Caught Up in Sudan's Civil War," Washington Post/International-Guardian Weekly, United Kingdom, June 16, 1998.
(62) "Faction Fighting in Southern Sudan Kills 49," AFP, Khartoum, July 15, 1998.
(63) "Thousands flee fighting in south Sudan, Nuba Mountains," AFP, Khartoum, July 21, 1998.
(64) "Nuba Defy Khartoum," The Washington Times, July 9, 1998.
(65) Tom Heaton, "Sudan in Turmoil Despite Government Denial," All Africa News Agency, Khartoum, October 12, 1998.