SUMMARY REPORT OF THE FIRST
ALL NUBA CONFERENCE
(Kauda, Nuba Mountains Region; 2nd - 5th December 2002)
Report compiled by the All Nuba Conference Chairing Committee
Report circulated on 20th December 2002
Contact address: email@example.com
The first ever "All Nuba Conference" was held from 2nd-5th December 2002 in Kauda, an area of the Nuba Mountains Region controlled by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A). It brought together over 380 representatives of Nuba civil society from all points of the Nuba political spectrum in order to discuss the future of the Nuba people. Over 40% of participants travelled from areas under the control of the Government of Sudan (GoS), 15 came from Europe and north America and a wide range of civil society groups, organisations and political parties were represented.
The coming together of such a wide and inclusive range of Nuba representatives to discuss their ideas and opinions on key Nuba and Sudan issues in an open and transparent forum was, in itself, a remarkable occurrence the like of which has not been seen for over 20 years. The significance of the event was further highlighted by the visit of the SPLM/A Chairman, Dr John Garang de Mabior, on the first day and other leading figures of the Movement associated with marginalised areas, including Malik Agar (Regional Secretary of Southern Blue Nile) and Edward Lino (East/Horn of Africa Representative for National Democratic Alliance). International observers, facilitators and journalists were also present at the four day conference, including Dr Kjell Hodnebo (Norwegian Foreign Affairs), Jeff Mapen (Carter Centre) and General Wilhelmson, Chairman of the Joint Military Commission (JMC).
The key outcomes of the Conference were:
The Conference also served to illustrate the importance of such events for
on-going processes of conflict transformation. By enabling such a broad cross
section of Nuba civil society to come together and discuss issues about their
future openly and transparently, it contributed significantly to the momentum
for people-led political processes as a means of promoting change. This was
especially significant for Nuba society that has been physically fragmented
since the war began and which has been unable to hold such public debates for
even longer due to political oppression by the GoS.
|1 Objectives, methodology, description and attendance|
|1.1 Objectives and approach of the Conference||
|1.2 Ownership and facilitation||
|1.4 Who was represented - an analysis of Conference participation||
|2 Political unity, the "Kauda Declaration" and key note speeches|
|2.1 Formation of the United Sudan National Party||
|2.2 Significant points from the key note speeches of the Conference||
|3 Conference resolutions: the conflict in Nuba - causes and implications||
|4 Conference resolutions: values and guiding principles||
|5 Conference resolutions: recommendations for IGAD peace process negotiations||
|6 Conference resolutions: priorities for the international community||
|7 Conference resolutions: follow-up and dialogue prioritised over the next year||
|Annex 1 Record of Conference events||
|Annex 2 Detailed breakdown of participant characteristics||
|Annex 3 Translation of the KAUDA DECLARATION||
|All Nuba Conference
Cease Fire Agreement for Nuba Mountains
Government of Sudan
The General Union of Nuba (dissolved at the Kauda ANC)
Inter Governmental Authority on Development
Joint Military Commission
National Democratic Alliance
Nuba Mountain Programme Advancing Conflict Transformation
Policy Advisory Committee for Nuba Mountains Region (SPLM/A)
The Sudan National Party (dissolved at the Kauda ANC)
The Free Sudan National Party (dissolved at the Kauda ANC)
The Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army
United Sudan National Party (new amalgamated party formed in Kauda ANC)
1 Objectives, methodology, description and attendance
1.1 Objectives and approach of the Conference
The objective of the Conference was to bring together a representational body of Nuba people from across the political and social spectrum and facilitate open discussion on the key issues related to the current conflict. It aimed to generate the guiding principles that could underpin a longer term democratic process for allowing the Nuba people to determine their future within the wider context of Sudan.
The core approach adopted by the Conference used group work to explore pre-defined
issues in detail followed by plenary discussion to generate conclusions. One
break away group comprising 28 political leaders and representatives of different
interest groups was formed to deal with issues related to the approaching IGAD
negotiations. The remaining 362 people were split into 12 separate groups, each
of about 30 people. The following six core themes were identified for group
work, with each theme being addressed by two groups. :
i) Root causes of the Nuba conflict
ii) Nuba identity and unity
iii) Land and natural resources
iv) Policy issues related to religion and the state, education and women's role in society
v) Issues related to displacement, movement and returning home
vi) Conditions required for an interim period in which Nuba people could decide their future
Every group was also asked to consider how the cross-cutting issue of human rights (violations, protection and promotion) was related to the particular theme they were discussing.
Working group membership was decided by a stratified random allocation of attendants from each of the three broad types of Conference participant - i.e. those coming from GoS controlled areas, from SPLM/A areas and from the Diaspora. The Chairing Committee and facilitators also identified active individuals from the participants who could act as effective moderators for each group, who were briefed in more detail on the group themes the previous evening.
Five hours were given for group work and about a day and a half for group presentations and plenary feedback and discussion. On the penultimate evening of the workshop, the facilitators took responsibility for compiling all the major findings and conclusions of the workshops. These were then fed back again to the plenary over an intensive three-hour session on the last day to allow any final modifications before they were endorsed as the official conclusions of the Conference.
Two additional topics were dealt with in short plenary sessions: the role of the international community in Nuba and follow-up activities to the Conference and priorities for further dialogue. In addition, presentations were made by General Wilhelmson (Chairman of the JMC) and Dr Kjell Hodnebo, (Norwegian Foreign Affairs, Observer team in Machakos) with questions and feedback from the floor. A separate evening meeting was held by the JMC with representatives of the Conference.
A full record of the Conference events is given in Annex 1.
1.2 Ownership and facilitation
It was made clear from the start that while the SPLM/A had taken the initiative to make the Conference happen, it was not their event. A Chairing Committee was thus established to take ownership of the Conference, made up of elected representatives of the participants coming from the GoS controlled areas, SPLM/A controlled areas and the international diaspora respectively. Invited representatives of the SPLM/A thus attended along side all the other participants on an equal basis, while senior leadership and officials were there in the capacity of observers. The Chairing Committee chaired every session and ensured that all participants had a means of channelling back any concerns that they might have to the facilitators.
A small team of facilitators were delegated the task of facilitating the agreed programme, comprising three Nuba (again, from GoS areas, SPLM/A areas and the Diaspora) and three international resource persons. A representative secretariat of 9 people was also established to record all proceedings (in Arabic and English) and to provide translators to international observers. Every evening the facilitators would sit with the Chairing Committee to review the day's progress, address any concerns raised by participants and plan for the next day.
The Conference took place in an open, cleared area under the full shade of pruned mango trees. A public address system was used to ensure that all speakers could be heard, with cord-less microphones that avoided disruption during question and answer sessions from the floor.
The Conference started each morning at 9 am and following mid morning tea, breakfast was served at around 2 pm. The afternoon session then ran from about 3 pm up to 6 pm giving time for those observing Ramadan to prepare to break their fast at sunset. An evening meal was served at around 8 pm. Musical entertainment was available each evening to those who wished it, and plenty of space for further informal discussion or more structured sessions with particular interest groups. Sleeping space for all participants was provided in the old school buildings of Kauda, next to the JMC Sector Headquarters (JMC Sector 1 HQ).
1.4 Who was represented - an analysis of Conference participation
A total of 390 participants attended, 53% (207 people) coming from SPLM-controlled areas, 43% (169) from GOS-controlled areas and the remaining 4% (14 people) from the international diaspora in Europe, US and Canada. A total of 21 different ethnic groups were represented, but only 15% (57) of all participants were female. The spread of age groups and educational backgrounds was more balanced and is shown below:
Annex 2 shows the full details of the participant breakdown.
In addition to the Nuba leaders from the SPLM/A controlled areas, who included Abdel Azziz Adam Elhilu, (Regional Secretary) and Musa Abdel Bagi (Secretary General of the Regional Council), many influential Nuba figures now living in GoS controlled areas were able to attend, including:
- Bishop Phillip Abbas Ghaboush - leader of the Free Sudan National Party (SNP-Free)
- Professor Elamin Hamouda - leader of the Sudan National Party (SNP)
- Mohamed Hamad Kuwa - leader of Sudan National Party-Collective Leadership (SNP-CL)
- Yussif Abdalla Jibril - leader of General Union of Nuba (GUN)
- Awad Selatin Darfur (ex Lt. Gen. of Sudan Police)
- Baballa Breima Baballa (ex. Governor of South Kordofan State)
- Abdu Rasuwl Kujur (ex Member of Parliament of Sudan)
- Haroun Idris (ex Member of Parliament of Sudan)
- Mohamed Yahia Elimam (ex. Member of the National Congress)
- Mohamed Maryood
Civil society organisations represented from GoS controlled Sudan included:
- Sudan Agency for Relief, Rehabilitation and Development (SARRD)
- Ru'ya Association
- Sudan Open Learning Organisation (SOLO)
- Nubnet (Network of Nuba Civil Society Organisations based in GoS controlled areas)
- Nuba Youth Association. Nuba Student and Graduates Association
- Community leaders (traditional 'Native Administration')
Civil society organisations represented from overseas included:
- Nuba Mountains International Association (NMIA), USA.
- Nuba Mountains International Association (NMIA), Canada.
- Nuba Mountains Solidarity Abroad (NMSA), Britain.
- Yusif Kuwa Organization for Women, Netherlands.
- Nuba Mountains Solidarity Abroad (NMSA), Netherlands.
The first day of the Conference saw the visit of the SPLM/A Chairman, Dr John Garang de Mabior, and other leading figures of the Movement associated with marginalised areas, including Malik Agar (Regional Secretary of Southern Blue Nile), Edward Lino (East/Horn of Africa Representative for National Democratic Alliance) and Taban Deng (SPLM Commissioner for Trade). International observers, donor and NGO representatives and journalists were also present at the four day conference, including Dr Kjell Hodnebo (Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Observer Team in Machakos), Jeff Mapen (Carter Centre) and representatives of the Joint Military Commission (JMC).
Because of their expressed concern as to possible recriminations from the GoS, a full list of all participants returning to Khartoum and GoS controlled areas was circulated so that the JMC and international observers could monitor their situation after the Conference.
A full list of participants is available from the Conference organising committee at firstname.lastname@example.org.
2 Political unity, the "Kauda Declaration" and key note speeches
2.1 Formation of the United Sudan National Party
One of the most significant outcomes of the Conference was the dissolution of the four political parties - the General Union of Nuba (GUN), the Sudan National Party (SNP), the SNP-Free and the SNP-Collective Leadership - and the formation of one, new "United Sudan National Party" (USNP), under the Presidency of Bishop Phillip Abbas Ghaboush and the vice-presidencies of Mohammed Hamad Kuwa, Elamin Hamouda and Yussif Abdalla Jibril.
This historic event, representing a major step towards the development of political unity among the Nuba people, took place on Wednesday 4th December with the issuing of what has come to be known as the "Kauda Declaration" (see Annex 3 for an English translation).
While the USNP still has up to six months to convene its first General Conference, the leadership of the new Party all confirmed that they fully supported all the Conference resolutions, not least those pertaining to the IGAD negotiations (see especially section 5 below).
2.2 Significant points from the key note speeches of the Conference
The following section attempts to highlight some of the most significant messages arising from the various key note speeches made during the Conference. Full transcripts of the speeches were made in Arabic during the Conference, as well as video records while English translations are available for some of the speeches
Bishop Phillip Abbas Ghaboush (ex leader of SNP Free, now President of the
· "Know the truth and the truth will liberate you."
· "Unity is the basic demand of our people. Unity is strength" He demonstrated that to the participants using six sticks.
· "The Nuba are not for the South Sudan but we are for the SPLM/A"
· "No to religious fundamentalism of any sort."
· "English is an international Language and it should be used as a medium of instruction in schools"
· "We demand self-determination for the Nuba people like any other people in Sudan."
· "I turned eighty-one years old today, and if I were to die today, after what I have just witnessed, I won't regret it."
· "This is the last chance to achieve our goals".
· "Previously the picture was not clear about SPLA/M, but now, especially after the
regular communication with our sons in the Diaspora and SPLA, we know how
to differentiate between Southern Sudan and SPLM/A as concepts. That why they
[the political leaders and civil society representatives] mandate the SPLM/A to negotiate on behalf of them, and they will give SPLM/A their full support."
· "Self determination is our right."
Professor Elamin Hamouda, (ex leader of SNP, now Vice-President of the USNP)
He agreed with all points raised in the address of Bishop Phillip and also added:
· "This conference has been convened at a historic moment of the Nuba struggle for justice and liberation and the eyes of the international community are focused on its outcome."
· "Unity of the political parties is essential to the Nuba collective success"
· "The problem of the Nuba people should not be isolated from that of Southern Sudan."
· "The question of Nuba should be discussed and resolved in IGAD as part and parcel of the comprehensive settlement of the conflict in Sudan. Any attempt to isolate the Nuba problem is a crime against Nuba."
Mohamed Hamad Kuwa, (ex leader of SNP Collective, now Vice-President of the USNP)
· "The GoS is trying to gain time by dragging its feet in Machakos."
· "Our Motto is: Free, democratic and united New Sudan"
· "Machakos will not come out with positive outcome."
· "The struggle will continue with all efforts and means at our disposals".
· "No body can cheat us again, no body can split our unity."
· "We support SPLM/A in the coming negotiation."
Yussif Abdalla Jibril, (ex leader of GUN, now Vice-President of the USNP)
Agreeing with the previous speeches and stressing the importance of unity, he added the following points:
· "We are together for a democratic, untied, secular Sudan."
· "We, the marginalized people, should rule."
· "Nuba people are the spearhead of the struggle in Sudan."
· "We support the SPLM/A".
Awad Selatin Darfur (ex Lt. Gen. of Sudan Police)
Starting with a description of the blatant discrimination he had faced according to his own experience as the first Nuba police officer in Sudan, his additional points included:
· "This is our last chance to decide, if we miss it we will not get it again"
· "The GOS and its media purposefully made the picture of SPLM/A unclear for every body - now it is time to correct that, and to make sure that there is no way for any one to use Nuba to fight each other again."
Baballa Breima Baballa (ex. Governor of South Kordofan State)
· "The conference is a real chance to correct the dark picture [of the past] and to draw
the way for the next future in the Nuba Mountains in particular and Sudan in
· "No one can cheat us again, and we will achieve our target."
Dr John Garang, Chairman SPLM/A
· "I want to reiterate the commitment of the SPLM/A to these areas [Nuba Mountains Region, South Blue Nile, Abyei]. We will not let you down. Whatever agreement we reach in IGAD we'll include you."
· "The Nuba did not let me down in the fighting and I will not let you down in the negotiations"
· "There is no place in the South where Nuba have not shed blood fighting for the process of liberation - and equally there are Southerners who died fighting with the Nuba Mountains SPLA"."
· "The SPLA force that liberated Equatoria in 1991 consist of about 90% Nuba freedom fighters".
· "The struggle of the Nuba people existed before Machakos and will continue after Machakos."
· "During the interim period, there should be two armies, the SPLA and the GoS Army. There will not be any absorption."
· "I have been absorbed once before. I am not going to be absorbed twice."
· "Sudan's richness is its cultural and social diversity, but the Government in Khartoum does not want diversity."
· "To avoid conflict we should have to build a new Sudan with a new perspective"
· "Change comes through four means of struggle: armed struggle, up-rising (Intifada), international pressure and negotiation."
· "I am a Unionist, despite the protestations of the Khartoum Regime to the contrary. When I met Bashir in July, I challenged him that I was more of a unionist than he was - and I proved it to him!".
· "There will be five key points at Machakos: the position of the three areas of Nuba Mountains, South Blue Nile and Abyei; power sharing; separation of the forces in the
interim period; and resources (wealth) sharing; and the situation of the
capital [he also mentioned religion and state]"
Malik Agar, Regional Secretary of Southern Blue Nile, SPLM/A
· "The struggle of the Nuba people started 1,000 years ago. What we are now engaging in is to take that struggle a few steps further."
· "The Nuba had been dispersed many times before, but never again."
· "The unity of the Nuba people and their political parties is now clear."
· "Never let the State use the issue of religion to split our natural religious tolerance, co-existence and unity."
Abdulaziz Adam alhilu, Regional Secretary of Nuba Mountains Region, SPLM/A
· Sudan is essentially a diversified country and the current conflict has been caused by the attempt of one group (those of the current GoS) to monopolize power, resources etc at the expense of all other peoples.
· We need to completely change the current centralised system and build a new Sudan in which every body could find themselves
· Religion must be separated from State
· "The Nuba unity demonstrated in this conference is remarkable and there is no retreat from it."
· "Since the conference mandated the SPLM to negotiate on behalf of the Nuba in the future negotiations, let us all speak with one voice according to the resolutions of this conference."
· "Without the united struggle between the Nuba and the South and other marginalized areas, we wouldn't have achieved what we achieved so far. All sides contributed."
· "The Nuba have become the vanguard of the struggle in Western Sudan. We shouldn't become spectators to the problems of the rest of the oppressed in the North, especially those in Darfur and Kordofan in order to effect the necessary change towards the New Sudan."
· "I suggest that such an inclusive conference be convened every two years to give the opportunity to the Nuba people inside Sudan and in the Diaspora to discuss the issues concerning their future."
Edward Lino (East/Horn of Africa Representative for National Democratic Alliance)
Emphasising the importance of unity, he encouraged people to support the new party (USNP) financially to avoid the impact of the GOS through using the poverty as the weapon to split the unity of the Nuba people.
Taban Deng (SPLM Commissioner for Trade & ex. Governor of Upper Nile State)
Having endorsed the sentiments of the other speakers and commented on the various strengths of Nuba society (both in Sudan and in the Diaspora), he described some of the experiences that he and Baballa Breima Baballa had had when they were both Governors. He explained how the GoS had tried to use them as tools to split the unity of their peoples.
3 Conference resolutions: the conflict in Nuba - causes and implications
The Conference was concerned that the underlying causes of the conflict in the Nuba Mountains Region have been frequently misrepresented by the Government of Sudan and/or misinterpreted by the international community. This was seen to have had negative implications on opportunities for conflict resolution and on the way that the international community has sometimes engaged with the Nuba problem.
The Conference therefore made an effort to clarify the underlying causes of the conflict in Nuba as follows (N.B. these complement the commentary on the causes of the conflict outlined in Annex 1 of the approved NMPACT document):
3.1 The underlying reasons for the conflict in Nuba are primarily related to
protracted discrimination, oppression and exploitation resulting in the social,
economic and political marginalisation of the Nuba people by successive centralised
governments in Khartoum.
3.2 Enforced arabisation, cultural and linguistic domination, the imposition of Sharia law and the GoS's refusal to respect or even tolerate ethnic, cultural and religious diversity was also recognised as a core problem.
3.3 The lack of land security for the Nuba people, and the appropriation of Nuba land and resources by northern elites, remains a key reason for conflict.
3.4 The current Government's apparent policies of genocide and human rights violations in Nuba, especially against women, are well documented.
3.5 The conference recognises the similarities with the reasons for the wider conflict in Sudan, and especially with those in other marginalised areas such as Southern Blue Nile and Abyei.
3.6 Until all these underlying causes are resolved, the conflict will continue because the Nuba people will see no alternative to armed struggle to attain their rights.
3.7 Similarly, until the wider conflict in Sudan is addressed there will be no chance for a sustainable peace settlement in Nuba.
3.8 In addition, the conference recognised that the previous lack of political unity among the Nuba people made them more vulnerable to exploitation by aggressive regimes and elites.
Throughout the Conference, the participants re-emphasised their demand for a democratic, representative and accountable Government that would protect their rights, promote their interests and allow self-determination in practice. If there remained no opportunity to achieve this through peaceful means, the Conference conclusion was that the option would be to fight.
The issue of relationships between the Nuba people and the pasturalist Arab tribes (Bagara) that move through the Nuba Mountains Region was discussed at length. While many participants clearly felt aggrieved at some of the actions of these groups, it was agreed that they were not an underlying cause of the conflict. Rather, it was felt they had been used by the GoS to inflame the conflict but that they could be persuaded to coexist peacefully with the Nuba in the future. A resolution was later passed to initiate and maintain dialogue with these groups (see 4.9 and 5.9).
4 Conference resolutions: values and guiding principles
To initiate a process of civil society dialogue that could, in time, lead to the articulation of agreed guiding principles and values for a free Nuba society, the conference discussed a range of issues that resulted in a broad consensus being reached on the following points. While it is recognised that further debate is needed to refine thinking on many of these issues, the degree of consensus reached was significant considering the diverse range of participants and interest groups involved.
4.1 Nuba people see themselves as having a unique ethnic, cultural, linguistic
and geographic identity which distinguishes them from all other peoples in Sudan
and which is essentially of African origin.
4.2 The Nuba people demand self-determination and an autonomous, representative Government for the Nuba Mountains Region accountable to, and elected by, the Nuba people.
4.3 Nuba society demands religious freedom, cultural diversity, human rights protection, equal rights for women, an independent judiciary, freedom of speech and a central role for civil society.
4.4 Oppressive practices of any sort, even if "traditional", should be discontinued (e.g. female circumcision)
4.5 Appropriate legislation and the necessary administrative capacity is required for ensuring Regional control of economic concessions and land rights for all Nuba people.
4.6 Effective, sustainable development policy guidelines are required which focus on sustainable land management practices, protection and use of indigenous plant species and livestock breeds, use of renewable energies and appropriate technologies. The necessary institutes and research capacities will be needed for this to happen.
4.7 The language of tuition in schools should be English, with Arabic treated as a subject just as any other Nuba languages are treated - education will be clearly separated from Religion.
4.8 Political unity and vision must be strengthened, while continuing to prioritise democracy.
4.9 Dialogue and agreements between Nuba and Baggara should be revived.
4.10 The SPLM/A should be given a clear mandate to represent Nuba in the present ongoing IGAD negotiations.
5 Conference resolutions: recommendations for the IGAD peace process negotiations
The Conference reached a consensus on the following points related to the approaching IGAD negotiations:
5.1 The endorsement of the IGAD process as the means to negotiate a just and secure peace for the Regions of Nuba Mountains, Southern Blue Nile and Abyei, but only as part of a comprehensive settlement for the whole of Sudan.
5.2 The recognition that the three Regions of Nuba Mountains, Southern Blue Nile and Abyei are an integral part of the SPLM/A and that there can never be a comprehensive solution without including these Regions. They form the fundamental base of any peaceful solution that the SPLM could sign with the GoS (this reiterated the same point made by Dr John Garang in his address to the Conference).
5.3 The clear mandate given by the Conference to the SPLM/A to negotiate on behalf of the Nuba people in the IGAD peace process, and for the new USNP also to play an active role in all such negotiations.
5.4 The right to self-determination, multi-party democracy and respect of human rights are all conditions for any sustainable comprehensive peace settlement.
5.5 The Nuba people must be given the chance to decide their own future through a clear democratic process during an interim period in which Sharia laws will be replaced by new, appropriate legislation allowing religious freedom.
5.6 The unambiguous alignment of the Nuba people with the SPLM/A during the interim period is seen as the only means to create the opportunity for a democratic and unimpeded process of self-determination. Whether or not it ends up in a united Sudan or in a part of Sudan is not an issue at this stage, but will depend on the democratic mechanisms at the end of the interim period.
5.7 The need for a full and independent investigation into the human rights violations perpetrated against the Nuba people and a means to bring any criminals to justice. Special emphasis must be given to assisting women and children recover from the violations to which they were exposed in GoS displacement camps.
5.8 Land rights for the Nuba people are a key to any sustainable peace agreement. International agencies need to provide further support to displaced Nuba to assist them to return to their homes unimpeded and in safety, through appropriate interventions.
5.9 A clear message should be sent to other ethnic groups in the Nuba (e.g. Bagara, Hawaza, Misseriya) that the Nuba struggle for their right is not directed against them but rather against the injustices imposed by successive regimes in Khartoum. The Conference recognised the importance of initiating and maintaining a process of dialogue between the Nuba and other ethnic groups in the Nuba Mountains to develop the opportunities for peaceful coexistence
5.10 The conference strongly support the amalgamation of the four political Nuba parties into one single party: the United Sudan National Party (USNP), which should also participate in the IGAD negotiations.
5.11 The traditional community leadership ('native administration') needs to strengthen unity among the Nuba people so that they are better able to achieve their rights.
5.12 The Cease Fire Agreement (CFA) should be renewed in the Nuba Mountains Region where ever the humanitarian needs persists and wherever possible in line with the commitment of the warring parties. Whilst recognising the benefits of the CFA and the monitoring role played by the JMC, there was also an interest from some to see it renewed for 12 months), but with a strong request to the Friends of Nuba that more pressure be brought to bare on the GoS to honour all aspects of the CFA.
5.13 The Conference endorsed "Nuba Mountains Region" as the official name of the Nuba Mountains (as defined by the CFA) to replace the old name of Southern Kordofan.
6 Conference resolutions: priorities for the international community
The following issues were identified by the conference as priority interventions and areas of focus for the international community seeking to assist the Nuba people:
6.1 Bring pressure to bare on the GoS to address its outstanding delays and violations to the current cease-fire agreement (including military redeployment, obstruction of civilian movement from remaining "peace camps" and restricted zones)
6.2 Disarm militias and any nomad groups previously armed by the GoS
6.3 Provide human rights monitoring and oversee investigations into war crimes and compensation (the GoS needs to recognise that they have committed slavery and human rights abuses against Nuba people, and to bring those involved to justice and compensate those who have suffered).
6.4 Assist in ensuring that appropriated land is returned to the rightful Nuba owners.
6.5 Provide support for further events fostering civil society and political dialogue (see section 7 below).
6.6 Ensure that all resolutions passed by the Conference are recognised and respected by the international community and especially respect the wishes of the Nuba people to be part of the SPLM/A for the interim period and acknowledge this position at IGAD
6.7 Respect the strategy, principles and rules of engagement as defined by the Nuba Mountains Programme Advancing Conflict Transformation (NMPACT) such that all interventions "enhance the Nuba people's capacity for self-reliance within a sustained process of conflict transformation guided by the aspirations, priorities and analyses of the Nuba people themselves", by:
i) ensuring all interventions are co-ordinated & integrated
ii) developing enabling environment for a Nuba-led process
iii) adopting a least harm approach- ensuring equitable cross-conflict interventions
iv) ensuring all interventions strengthen self-reliance and local capacities
v) ensuring protection/promotion of human rights
vi) being flexible and responsive to changing needs and conditions
6.8 Respect and support the Strategic Framework developed to guide interventions in SPLM/A controlled areas. N.B. This is available from PAC (the Policy Advisory Committee for Nuba Mountains Region) SRRA-Nuba and NRRDO.
6.9 The great majority of Nuba wish to return to their homes and many have done so since the cease-fire started. However additional assistance is needed from the international community to ensure freedom of movement, to clear mines, support transportation, rehabilitate local services and assist in ensuring that conditions conducive to return are created
6.10 Focus on building up local economic potential through developing capacities for processing and trading of local raw commodities, encourage international investment etc
6.11 Use environmental impact assessments for all interventions to ensure that no ecological damage results from any interventions - don't use materials or practices which harm the environment
6.12 Refrain from any intervention that could create dependency or undermine local self-reliance
6.13 Support the undertaking of a geophysical survey for ascertaining the potential for water development and mineral resources in ways that would bring sustainable and equitable benefits to the Nuba people under in an accountable and transparent way.
7 Conference resolutions: follow-up and dialogue prioritised over the next year
The following issues were identified by the conference as priority interventions and areas of focus for on-going civil society and political dialogue over the coming 12 months:
7.1 Convene an All Nuba Women's Conference, not only to discuss women's issues
in detail, but also to ensure that women's voices are heard in the broader debate
about the future of the Nuba people
7.2 Convene further meetings/workshops between representatives of different Nuba ethnic/interest groups that make up the broader Nuba civil society to explore in more detail specific issues pertaining to unity and peaceful coexistence
7.3 Convene the appropriate meetings/workshops between representatives of Nuba civil society and the pastoralist groups, such as the Bagara
7.4 Support the dissemination of the policies and ideas of new political parties such as the United Sudan National Party.
7.5 Create stronger mechanisms that ensure that the genuine voice of the Nuba people reaches the international parties of the Cease Fire Agreement (especially the "Friends of Nuba") and the IGAD process.
7.6 Improve flow of information to the media/press to ensure that Nuba issues reach a wider audience and strengthen advocacy campaigns.
Annex 1 Record of Conference events
|Saturday 30th November and Sunday 1st December|
|All day||- Participants, guests and international observers arrive,
register and settle in
- Group moderators briefed on approaching group work themes and their roles
|Monday 2nd December|
|9 am -11 am||- Introductions
- Official opening addresses
- Conference objectives, schedule, agenda
- Conference ground rules
|11 am -1 pm &
2 pm - 4 pm
| - Key note speeches :
|4 pm - 6 pm||- Introduction to and start of group work|
|Tuesday 3rd December|
|9 am -2 pm||- Group work|
|4 pm - 6 pm||- Presentations by groups and plenary discussions|
|Wednesday 4th December|
|9 am - 1pm||- Presentations by groups and plenary discussions|
|1 pm - 2 pm||- Presentation by General Wilhelmson, JMC Chairman, & plenary questions|
|3 pm - 5 pm||- Kauda Declaration: formation of the USNP and addresses by the political leaders|
|5 pm - 6 pm||- Plenary discussion on role of the international community in Nuba|
|8 pm - 9 pm||- Evening session with JMC Chairman and representatives from Conference participants|
|8 pm - 3 am||- Facilitators compile conclusions from group work & plenary discussions|
|Thursday 5th December|
|9 am - 12 pm||- Feedback to the floor of compiled conclusions, modifications and final endorsement by plenary as official outputs of the Conference|
|12 pm - 1 pm||- Plenary session on follow up to the Conference and further dialogue events required|
|3 pm -3.30 pm||- Presentation on IGAD process by Dr r Kjell Hodnebo - (Norwegian Foreign Affairs and Observer Team in Machakos)|
|3.30 pm - 6 pm||- Closing speeches|
|Friday 6th December|
|-||- Participants leave to return home|
Annex 2 Detailed breakdown of participant characteristics
|Group characteristic||Group number||
|< 20 years||-||-||-||-||-||1||-||1||-||1||-||-||-||
|20 - 30||4||7||4||10||6||5||14||7||6||8||5||6||6||
|30 - 40||10||12||10||10||11||10||10||11||6||9||5||15||10||
|40 - 50||12||4||15||8||4||8||6||10||13||12||6||9||5||
|50 - 60||8||6||3||3||4||4||4||5||1||2||3||2||4||
|up to 2ry school||19||16||15||20||11||14||19||18||15||21||11||16||16||
Annex 3 Translation of the KAUDA DECLARATION
On this special day Wednesday 4th December 2002, in Kauda the cradle of Nuba
According to the call of our fellow Nuba compatriots according to the call of our people in the diaspora and the call of our mother country and the call of our youth and students. We the chairpersons of the following parties:
§ Free Sudan National Party
§ Sudan National Party Collective Leadership
§ Sudan National Party
§ General Union of Nuba Mountains
After various meetings and consultation in all Sudanese towns we reached a common ground in our unified political vision, we came out with the following:
1. Dissolve all the four political parties mentioned above
2. Formation of a unified party under the name of United Sudan National Party
3. Appointment of Arch Bishop Philip Abbas as President of the new party
4. Appointment of the following persons as vice presidents:
§ Mohamed Hamad Kuwa
§ Professor El Amin Hamoda
§ Yousif Abdalla Gibreel
5. The executive office of the party shall be composed of eight members two member from each party
6. The political office shall consist of sixty members fifteen from each party
7. The executive committee shall lay the internal regulations to fill constitutional gaps during the interim period and preparation of the constitution
8. Work towards convening of the party's general conference in six months time
Therefore, we call upon our people in all parts of Sudan and the diaspora to support the party.
His Excellency Archbishop Bishop Phillip Abbas Ghaboush
Professor Elamin Hamouda
Mohamed Hamad Kuwa
Yussif Abdalla Jibril